Distal chromosome 16p11.2 duplications containing SH2B1 in patients with scoliosis
Sadler B., Haller G., Antunes L., Bledsoe X., Morcuende J., Giampietro P., Raggio C., Miller N., Kidane Y., Wise CA., Amarillo I., Walton N., Seeley M., Johnson D., Jenkins C., Jenkins T., Oetjens M., Tong RS., Druley TE., Dobbs MB., Gurnett CA.
<jats:sec><jats:title>Introduction</jats:title><jats:p>Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common musculoskeletal disorder with strong evidence for a genetic contribution. CNVs play an important role in congenital scoliosis, but their role in idiopathic scoliosis has been largely unexplored.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>Exome sequence data from 1197 AIS cases and 1664 in-house controls was analysed using coverage data to identify rare CNVs. CNV calls were filtered to include only highly confident CNVs with >10 average reads per region and mean log-ratio of coverage consistent with single-copy duplication or deletion. The frequency of 55 common recurrent CNVs was determined and correlated with clinical characteristics.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>Distal chromosome 16p11.2 microduplications containing the gene <jats:italic>SH2B1</jats:italic> were found in 0.7% of AIS cases (8/1197). We replicated this finding in two additional AIS cohorts (8/1097 and 2/433), resulting in 0.7% (18/2727) of all AIS cases harbouring a chromosome 16p11.2 microduplication, compared with 0.06% of local controls (1/1664) and 0.04% of published controls (8/19584) (p=2.28×10<jats:sup>−11</jats:sup>, OR=16.15). Furthermore, examination of electronic health records of 92 455 patients from the Geisinger health system showed scoliosis in 30% (20/66) patients with chromosome 16p11.2 microduplications containing <jats:italic>SH2B1</jats:italic> compared with 7.6% (10/132) of controls (p=5.6×10<jats:sup>−4</jats:sup>, OR=3.9).</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title><jats:p>Recurrent distal chromosome 16p11.2 duplications explain nearly 1% of AIS. Distal chromosome 16p11.2 duplications may contribute to scoliosis pathogenesis by directly impairing growth or by altering expression of nearby genes, such as <jats:italic>TBX6</jats:italic>. Individuals with distal chromosome 16p11.2 microduplications should be screened for scoliosis to facilitate early treatment.</jats:p></jats:sec>