Type H blood vessels in coupling angiogenesis-osteogenesis and its application in bone tissue engineering.
Xu Z., Kusumbe AP., Cai H., Wan Q., Chen J.
One specific capillary subtype, termed type H vessel, has been found with unique functional characteristics in coupling angiogenesis with osteogenesis. Researchers have fabricated a variety of tissue engineering scaffolds to enhance bone healing and regeneration through the accumulation of type H vessels. However, only a limited number of reviews discussed the tissue engineering strategies for type H vessel regulation. The object of this review is to summary the current utilizes of bone tissue engineering to regulate type H vessels through various signal pathways including Notch, PDGF-BB, Slit3, HIF-1α, and VEGF signaling. Moreover, we give an insightful overview of recent research progress about the morphological, spatial and age-dependent characteristics of type H blood vessels. Their unique role in tying angiogenesis and osteogenesis together via blood flow, cellular microenvironment, immune system and nervous system are also summarized. This review article would provide an insight into the combination of tissue engineering scaffolds with type H vessels and identify future perspectives for vasculized tissue engineering research.