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Neuroendocrine neoplasia (NENs) are a complex and heterogeneous group of cancers that can arise from neuroendocrine tissues throughout the body and differentiate them from other tumors. Their low incidence and high diversity make many of them orphan conditions characterized by a low incidence and few dedicated clinical trials. Study of the molecular and genetic nature of these diseases is limited in comparison to more common cancers and more dependent on preclinical models, including both in vitro models (such as cell lines and 3D models) and in vivo models (such as patient derived xenografts (PDXs) and genetically-engineered mouse models (GEMMs)). While preclinical models do not fully recapitulate the nature of these cancers in patients, they are useful tools in investigation of the basic biology and early-stage investigation for evaluation of treatments for these cancers. We review available preclinical models for each type of NEN and discuss their history as well as their current use and translation.

Original publication




Journal article





Publication Date





5646 - 5646