Role of angiocrine signals in bone development, homeostasis and disease.
Sivan U., De Angelis J., Kusumbe AP.
Skeletal vasculature plays a central role in the maintenance of microenvironments for osteogenesis and haematopoiesis. In addition to supplying oxygen and nutrients, vasculature provides a number of inductive factors termed as angiocrine signals. Blood vessels drive recruitment of osteoblast precursors and bone formation during development. Angiogenesis is indispensable for bone repair and regeneration. Dysregulation of the angiocrine crosstalk is a hallmark of ageing and pathobiological conditions in the skeletal system. The skeletal vascular bed is complex, heterogeneous and characterized by distinct capillary subtypes (type H and type L), which exhibit differential expression of angiocrine factors. Furthermore, distinct blood vessel subtypes with differential angiocrine profiles differentially regulate osteogenesis and haematopoiesis, and drive disease states in the skeletal system. This review provides an overview of the role of angiocrine signals in bone during homeostasis and disease.