Genetics of hereditary forms of primary hyperparathyroidism.
English KA., Lines KE., Thakker RV.
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), a relatively common disorder characterized by hypercalcemia with raised or inappropriately normal serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, may occur as part of a hereditary syndromic disorder or as a non-syndromic disease. The associated syndromic disorders include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1-5 (MEN1-5) and hyperparathyroidism with jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndromes, and the non-syndromic forms include familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia types 1-3 (FHH1-3), familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NS-HPT). Such hereditary forms may occur in > 10% of patients with PHPT, and their recognition is important for implementation of gene-specific screening protocols and investigations for other associated tumors. Syndromic PHPT tends to be multifocal and multiglandular with most patients requiring parathyroidectomy with the aim of limiting end-organ damage associated with hypercalcemia, particularly osteoporosis, nephrolithiasis, and renal failure. Some patients with non-syndromic PHPT may have mutations of the MEN1 gene or the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), whose loss of function mutations usually cause FHH1, a disorder associated with mild hypercalcemia and may follow a benign clinical course. Measurement of the urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratio clearance (UCCR) may help to distinguish patients with FHH from those with PHPT, as the majority of FHH patients have low urinary calcium excretion (UCCR