Epigenetic dysregulation in pituitary tumors
Shariq OA., Lines KE.
<jats:p> Pituitary tumors are common intracranial neoplasms associated with significant morbidity due to hormonal dysregulation and neurologic symptoms. Somatic mutations are uncommon in sporadic pituitary adenomas, and only few monogenic conditions are associated with pituitary tumors. However, increasing evidence suggests that aberrant epigenetic modifications are found in pituitary tumors. In this review, we describe these mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression, and the evidence supporting their dysregulation in pituitary tumors, as well as their regulation of pro-tumorigenic genes. In addition, we provide an overview of findings from preclinical studies investigating the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors to treat pituitary adenomas and the need for further studies involving epigenetic drugs and functional characterization of epigenetic dysregulation. </jats:p>