Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Musculoskeletal System at 7T: Morphological Imaging and Beyond.
Juras V., Mlynarik V., Szomolanyi P., Valkovič L., Trattnig S.
In 2017, a whole-body 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device was given regulatory approval for clinical use in both the EU and United States for neuro and musculoskeletal applications. As 7 Tesla allows for higher signal-to-noise , which results in higher resolution images than those obtained on lower-field-strength scanners, it has attracted considerable attention from the musculoskeletal field, as evidenced by the increasing number of publications in the last decade. Besides morphological imaging, the quantitative MR methods, such as T2, T2*, T1ρ mapping, sodium imaging, chemical-exchange saturation transfer, and spectroscopy, substantially benefit from ultrahigh-field scanning. In this review, we provide technical considerations for the individual techniques and an overview of (mostly) clinical applications for the assessment of cartilage, tendon, meniscus, and muscle. The first part of the review is dedicated to morphological applications at 7T, and the second part describes the most recent developments in quantitative MRI at 7T.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0.