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A total of 12 patients (mean age +/- SEM 63 +/- 2.6 years) with moderate to severe heart failure (ejection fraction = 23 +/- 3.2%) were included in a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Patients were randomly allocated to 4 periods of 6 weeks each: placebo, placebo and physical training, lisinopril 10 mg daily, and lisinopril and physical training. The exercise time increased from 13.6 +/- 0.9 min with placebo to 15 +/- 1 min with training alone, and to 16.1 +/- 0.7 min with lisinopril and training. With lisinopril alone there was a non-significant increase in exercise time, to 14.5 +/- 0.6 min. Improvements in exercise time were accompanied by a similar increase in peak oxygen consumption. Overall, the most significant improvements in symptoms and indices of cardiorespiratory fitness were achieved with a combination of lisinopril and training. Thus physical training is not only a useful adjunct to the existing medical therapy for heart failure, but it may also provide symptomatic benefits in its own right.

Original publication




Journal article


J Intern Med

Publication Date





407 - 413


Aged, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Cardiac Output, Low, Combined Modality Therapy, Double-Blind Method, Enalapril, Exercise Therapy, Female, Humans, Lisinopril, Male, Middle Aged, Physical Exertion