Genetics of Monogenic Diabetes: Present Clinical Challenges.
Misra S., Owen KR.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monogenic forms of diabetes have specific treatments that differ from the standard care provided for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, making the appropriate diagnosis essential. In this review, we discuss current clinical challenges that remain, including improving case-finding strategies, particularly those that have transethnic applicability, and understanding the interpretation of genetic variants as pathogenic, with clinically meaningful impacts. RECENT FINDINGS: Biomarker approaches to the stratification for genetic testing now appear to be most effective in identifying cases of monogenic diabetes, and use of genetic risk scores may also prove useful. However, applicability in all ethnic groups is lacking. Challenges remain in the classification of genes as diabetes-causing and the interpretation of genetic variants at the clinical interface. Since the discovery that genetic defects can cause neonatal or young-onset diabetes, multiple causal genes have been identified and there have been many advances in strategies to detect genetic forms of diabetes and their treatments. Approaches learnt from monogenic diabetes are now being translated to polygenic diabetes.