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INTRODUCTION: Ex-vivo gene therapy has had significant clinical impact over the last couple of years and in-vivo gene therapy products are being approved for clinical use. Gene therapy and gene editing approaches have huge potential to treat genetic disease and chronic illness. Areas covered: This article provides a review of in-vivo approaches for gene therapy in the lung and liver, exploiting non-viral and viral vectors with varying serotypes and pseudotypes to target-specific cells. Antibody responses inhibiting viral vectors continue to constrain effective repeat administration. Lessons learned from ex-vivo gene therapy and genome editing are also discussed. Expert opinion: The fields of lung and liver in-vivo gene therapy are thriving and a comparison highlights obstacles and opportunities for both. Overcoming immunological issues associated with repeated administration of viral vectors remains a key challenge. The addition of targeted small molecules in combination with viral vectors may offer one solution. A substantial bottleneck to the widespread adoption of in-vivo gene therapy is how to ensure sufficient capacity for clinical-grade vector production. In the future, the exploitation of gene editing approaches for in-vivo disease treatment may facilitate the resurgence of non-viral gene transfer approaches, which tend to be eclipsed by more efficient viral vectors.

Original publication




Journal article


Expert Opin Biol Ther

Publication Date





959 - 972


AAV, Gene therapy, adenovirus, cystic fibrosis, ex-vivo, gene editing, in-vivo, lentivirus, non-viral vector, pseudotype, Animals, Dependovirus, Gene Editing, Gene Transfer Techniques, Genetic Therapy, Genetic Vectors, Humans, Liver, Lung, Viruses