Thrombo-embolic events in left ventricular endocardial pacing: long-term outcomes from a multicentre UK registry.
Sawhney V., Domenichini G., Gamble J., Furniss G., Panagopoulos D., Lambiase P., Rajappan K., Chow A., Lowe M., Sporton S., Earley MJ., Dhinoja M., Campbell N., Hunter RJ., Haywood G., Betts TR., Schilling RJ.
Aims: Endocardial left ventricular (LV) pacing is a viable alternative in patients with failed coronary sinus (CS) lead implantation. However, long-term thrombo-embolic risk remains unknown. Much of the data have come from a small number of centres. We examined the safety and efficacy of endocardial LV pacing to determine the long-term thrombo-embolic risk. Methods and results: Registries from four UK centres were combined to include 68 patients with endocardial leads with a mean follow-up of 20 months. These were compared to a matched 1:2 control group with conventional CS leads. Medical records were reviewed, and patients contacted for follow-up. Ischaemic stroke occurred in four patients (6%) in the endocardial arm providing an annual event rate (AER) of 3.6% over a 20 month follow-up; compared to 9 patients (6.6%) amongst controls with an AER of 3.4% over a 23-month follow-up. Regression analyses showed a significant association between sub-therapeutic international normalized ratio and stroke (P = 0.0001) in the endocardial arm. There was no association between lead material and mode of delivery (transatrial/transventricular) and stroke. Mortality rate was 12 and 15 per 100 patient years in the endocardial and control arm respectively with end-stage heart failure being the commonest cause. Conclusion: Endocardial LV lead in heart failure patients has a good success rate at 1.6 year follow-up. However, it is associated with a thrombo-embolic risk (which is not different from conventional CS leads) attributable to sub-therapeutic anticoagulation. Randomized control trials and studies on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are required to ascertain the potential of widespread clinical application of this therapeutic modality.