The predictive value of baseline pulmonary hypertension in early and long term cardiac and all-cause mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Kokkinidis DG., Papanastasiou CA., Jonnalagadda AK., Oikonomou EK., Theochari CA., Palaiodimos L., Karvounis HI., Armstrong EJ., Faillace RT., Giannakoulas G.
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a safe and effective alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for the treatment of severe aortic valve stenosis (AS). The impact of concomitant baseline elevated pulmonary artery pressures on outcomes after TAVI has not been established, since different studies used different definitions of pulmonary hypertension (PH). OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of PH with early and late cardiac and all-cause mortality after TAVI. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of studies comparing patients with elevated pulmonary artery pressures (defined as pulmonary hypertension or not) versus patients without elevated pulmonary artery pressures undergoing TAVI. We first performed stratified analyses based on the different PH cut-off values utilized by the included studies and subsequently pooled the studies irrespective of their cut-off values. We used a random effects model for the meta-analysis and assessed heterogeneity with I-square. Separate meta-analyses were performed for studies reporting outcomes as hazards ratios (HRs) and relative risks (RRs). Subgroup analyses were performed for studies published before and after 2013. Meta-regression analysis in order to assess the effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and mitral regurgitation were performed. RESULTS: In total 22 studies were included in this systematic review. Among studies presenting results as HR, PH was associated with increased late cardiac mortality (HR: 1.8. 95% CI: 1.3-2.3) and late all-cause mortality (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.1-2). The PH cut-off value that was most likely to be associated with worst outcomes among the different endpoints was pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 60 mm Hg (HR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.3; I2 = 0, for late cardiac mortality and HR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1-2.1; I2 = 85% for late all-cause mortality). CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis emphasizes the importance of baseline PH in predicting mortality outcomes after TAVI. Additional studies are needed to clarify the association between elevated baseline pulmonary artery pressures and outcomes after TAVI.