A novel phenotypic pattern in X-linked inheritance: craniofrontonasal syndrome maps to Xp22.
Feldman GJ., Ward DE., Lajeunie-Renier E., Saavedra D., Robin NH., Proud V., Robb LJ., Der Kaloustian V., Carey JC., Cohen MM., Cormier V., Munnich A., Zackai EH., Wilkie AO., Price RA., Muenke M.
Craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS, OMIM 304110) is a distinctive genetic disorder whose main clinical manifestations include coronal synostosis, widely spaced eyes, clefting of the nasal tip and various skeletal anomalies. CFNS originally was thought to be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but recent studies suggest that it is X-linked dominant, whereby all daughters of males are affected, whereas none of their sons are affected. Here we report data confirming that CFNS is X-linked, mapping to a 13 cM interval in Xp22 with a maximum two-point lod score of 3.9 (theta = 0) at DXS8022 and a multipoint lod score of 5.08 at DXS1224. Detailed phenotypic analysis shows that females are more severely affected than males, a highly unusual characteristic for an X-linked disorder. CFNS represents the first multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with this unusual phenotypic pattern of X-linked inheritance.