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The cytoprotective effects of MK-801 and NBQX, selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists, respectively, were compared both singularly and in combination in models of transient severe forebrain and transient focal cerebral ischemia. After 10 minutes of four-vessel occlusion ischemia, the sodium salt of NBQX (30 mg/kg IP) given at the time of reperfusion and, subsequently, 15 and 30 minutes later produced a dramatic reduction in CA1 hippocampal necrosis at 7 days. This effect was not obtained with the intraperitoneal administration of either MK-801 (1 mg/kg x 3) or the combination of both NBQX and MK-801 given at the same time intervals. This effect of intraperitoneal NBQX alone was reproduced in a two-vessel occlusion/hypotension model using this same drug administration. Delayed treatment with both NBQX and GYKI 52466, but neither MK-801 nor the combination of NBQX and MK-801 given after a delay, produced a significant reduction in the mean volume of neocortical infarction after transient focal ischemia. We conclude that the AMPA receptor may play a more important role than the NMDA receptor in both selective ischemic necrosis of hippocampal neurons and in neocortical infarction. AMPA antagonists should be subjected to clinical stroke trials.


Journal article



Publication Date





I148 - I152


Animals, Anti-Anxiety Agents, Benzodiazepines, Cerebral Infarction, Cerebrovascular Disorders, Dizocilpine Maleate, Drug Administration Schedule, Injections, Intraperitoneal, Male, N-Methylaspartate, Quinoxalines, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Reperfusion, alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid