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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Five pretreatment variables (P<0.1 univariate analysis), including serum glucose (>300 mg/dL), predicted symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rtPA trial. We retrospectively studied stroke patients treated <3 hours from onset with intravenous rtPA at 2 institutions to evaluate the role of these variables in predicting ICH. METHODS: Baseline characteristics, including 5 prespecified variables (age, baseline glucose, smoking status, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score, and CT changes [>33% middle cerebral artery territory hypodensity]), were reviewed in 138 consecutive patients. Variables were evaluated by logistic regression as predictors of all hemorrhage (including hemorrhagic transformation) and symptomatic hemorrhage on follow-up CT scan. Variables significant at P<0.25 level were included in a multivariate analysis. Diabetes was substituted for glucose in a repeat analysis. RESULTS: Symptomatic hemorrhage rate was 9% (13 of 138). Any hemorrhage rate was 30% (42 of 138). Baseline serum glucose (5.5-mmol/L increments) was the only independent predictor of both symptomatic hemorrhage [OR, 2.26 (CI, 1.05 to 4.83), P=0.03] and all hemorrhage [OR, 2.26 (CI, 1.07 to 4.69), P=0.04]. Serum glucose >11.1 mmol/L was associated with a 25% symptomatic hemorrhage rate. Baseline NIHSS (5-point increments) was an independent predictor of all hemorrhage only [OR, 12.42 (CI, 1.64 to 94.3), P=0.01]. Univariate analysis demonstrated a trend for nonsmoking as a predictor of all hemorrhage [OR, 0.45 (CI, 0.19 to 1. 08), P=0.07]. Diabetes was also an independent predictor of ICH when substituted for glucose in repeat analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Serum glucose and diabetes were predictors of ICH in rtPA-treated patients. This novel association requires confirmation in a larger cohort.


Journal article



Publication Date





34 - 39


Acute Disease, Aged, Blood Glucose, Brain Ischemia, Cerebral Hemorrhage, Cerebrovascular Disorders, Cohort Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Female, Humans, Hyperglycemia, Male, Plasminogen Activators, Predictive Value of Tests, Regression Analysis, Retrospective Studies, Thrombolytic Therapy