NXY-059, a novel free radical trapping compound, reduces cortical infarction after permanent focal cerebral ischemia in the rat.
Zhao Z., Cheng M., Maples KR., Ma JY., Buchan AM.
Free radicals have gained wide acceptance as mediators of cerebral ischemic injury. It has previously been reported that a spin trap nitrone, alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), can reduce infarct volumes in rats subjected to either permanent or transient focal cerebral ischemia. A recent study has demonstrated that NXY-059, a novel free radical trapping nitrone compound, has a neuroprotective effect against transient focal cerebral ischemia. This study was designed to determine the effect of NXY-059 in a rodent model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by placement of a microaneurysm clip on the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Animals were divided into three groups: (1) physiological saline given as a 1 ml/kg i.v. bolus administered 5 min post MCAO followed immediately by a continuous i.v. infusion of 0.5 ml/h of physiological saline for 24 h (n=10); (2) 30 mg/kg, 1 ml/kg, i.v. bolus of NXY-059 dissolved in physiological saline administered 5 min post MCAO followed immediately by a continuous i.v. infusion of 30 mg/kg/h, 0.5 ml/h, of NXY-059 for 24 h (n=9); (3) 60 mg/kg, 1 ml/kg, i.v. bolus of NXY-059 dissolved in physiological saline administered 5 min post MCAO followed immediately by a continuous i.v. infusion of 60 mg/kg/h, 0.5 ml/h, of NXY-059 for 24 h (n=12). Infarction was quantified after a survival period of 24 h. Differences in infarct volume were examined with one-way ANOVA following Dunnet's multiple comparison test. The percentage of cortical infarction in the saline control group was 22.6 +/- 6.8% (mean+/-S.D.) of contra-lateral hemisphere, and in the 30 mg/kg/h NXY-059-treated group was 17.4% +/- 6.8% (NS). Plasma concentration (microM/l) of NXY-059 in the 30 mg/kg/h group was 80.2 +/- 52.2 (n=9), while in the 60 mg/kg/h group plasma concentration (microM/l) of NXY-059 was 391.0 +/- 207.0 (n=10). Infarction in the 60 mg/kg/h NXY-059-treated group was significantly reduced (P=0.009) to 14.5 +/- 5%. Our preliminary data demonstrate that administration of NXY-059 (60 mg/kg/h for 24 h) ameliorates cortical infarction in rats subjected to permanent focal cerebral ischemia with 24 h survival.