GNAS1 mutational analysis in pseudohypoparathyroidism.
Ahmed SF., Dixon PH., Bonthron DT., Stirling HF., Barr DG., Kelnar CJ., Thakker RV.
OBJECTIVE: Mutations of the GNAS1 gene, which is located on chromosome 20q13.11 and encodes the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory GTP-binding protein, have been identified in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHPIa) and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). We have undertaken studies to determine the prevalence of GNAS1 mutations and to explore methods for their more rapid detection. METHODS: Thirteen unrelated families (8 with PHPIa and PPHP patients, and 5 with PPHP patients only) were investigated for GNAS1 mutations in the 1050 base-pair (bp) region spanning exons 2-13 by single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequence analysis. RESULTS: GNAS1 mutations were detected in 4 of the 8 families with PHPIa patients. These consisted of: two novel de novo missense mutations (Pro115Ser and Glu259Val) in two families and an identical 4 bp deletion of codons 189 and 190 resulting in a frame-shift in two unrelated families. These results expand the spectrum of GNAS1 mutations associated with this disorder and confirm the presence of a mutational hot-spot involving codons 189 and 190. SSCP analysis was found to be a specific and sensitive method that detected all 4 mutations. GNAS1 mutations were not detected in any of the PPHP only families. CONCLUSIONS: The pseudohypoparathyroid disorders appear to represent a heterogeneous group with GNAS1 mutations forming the molecular aetiology in approximately 50% of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia families. Such mutations can be reliably identified by single-stranded conformational polymorphism and this will help to supplement the clinical evaluation of some patients and their families, particularly as the disease may not be fully penetrant.