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Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is an innate pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in protection against intracellular pathogens. Existing methods for measuring TNF-alpha production and function in ruminants are limited to ELISA and many rely on polyclonal antisera. With a view to developing improved detection methods for bovine (bov) TNF-alpha, monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced by immunising mice with a plasmid encoding bov TNF-alpha. Two of the resulting mAb, termed CC327 and CC328, were used to develop a sandwich ELISA capable of detecting both native and recombinant bov TNF-alpha. This ELISA did not detect recombinant ovine (ov) TNF-alpha. A luminometric method was applied to the ELISA to improve sensitivity for detection of native bov TNF-alpha in culture supernatants derived from bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Both CC327 and CC328 detected intracytoplasmic expression of TNF-alpha in mitogen-activated bovine T lymphocytes. However, only CC328 detected intracytoplasmic ovine TNF-alpha in transfected cells, explaining the failure of the sandwich ELISA to detect recombinant ov TNF-alpha. These mAbs have generated the capability to study the role of TNF-alpha in host immune protection and disease pathogenesis in ruminants.

Original publication




Journal article


Vet Immunol Immunopathol

Publication Date





320 - 324


Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Base Sequence, Cattle, Cross Reactions, DNA Primers, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Mice, Plasmids, Recombinant Proteins, Sheep, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha