Mutant Mice With Calcium-Sensing Receptor Activation Have Hyperglycemia That Is Rectified by Calcilytic Therapy.
Babinsky VN., Hannan FM., Ramracheya RD., Zhang Q., Nesbit MA., Hugill A., Bentley L., Hough TA., Joynson E., Stewart M., Aggarwal A., Prinz-Wohlgenannt M., Gorvin CM., Kallay E., Wells S., Cox RD., Richards D., Rorsman P., Thakker RV.
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a family C G-protein-coupled receptor that plays a pivotal role in extracellular calcium homeostasis. The CaSR is also highly expressed in pancreatic islet α- and β-cells that secrete glucagon and insulin, respectively. To determine whether the CaSR may influence systemic glucose homeostasis, we characterized a mouse model with a germline gain-of-function CaSR mutation, Leu723Gln, referred to as Nuclear flecks (Nuf). Heterozygous- (CasrNuf/+) and homozygous-affected (CasrNuf/Nuf) mice were shown to have hypocalcemia in association with impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion. Oral administration of a CaSR antagonist compound, known as a calcilytic, rectified the glucose intolerance and hypoinsulinemia of CasrNuf/+ mice and ameliorated glucose intolerance in CasrNuf/Nuf mice. Ex vivo studies showed CasrNuf/+ and CasrNuf/Nuf mice to have reduced pancreatic islet mass and β-cell proliferation. Electrophysiological analysis of isolated CasrNuf/Nuf islets showed CaSR activation to increase the basal electrical activity of β-cells independently of effects on the activity of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel. CasrNuf/Nuf mice also had impaired glucose-mediated suppression of glucagon secretion, which was associated with increased numbers of α-cells and a higher α-cell proliferation rate. Moreover, CasrNuf/Nuf islet electrophysiology demonstrated an impairment of α-cell membrane depolarization in association with attenuated α-cell basal KATP channel activity. These studies indicate that the CaSR activation impairs glucose tolerance by a combination of α- and β-cell defects and also influences pancreatic islet mass. Moreover, our findings highlight a potential application of targeted CaSR compounds for modulating glucose metabolism.