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© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. This chapter explains the mechanisms of endothelial activation and the factors that contribute to infiltration of immune cells into the vessel wall. It focuses on three cytokines that have been shown to promote inflammation in the endothelium: interleukins (IL), tumor necrosis factors (TNF), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Atherosclerosis is a multifaceted and chronic inflammatory disease. Multiple inflammatory pathways cooperatively contribute to progression of the disease. The chapter also focuses on endothelial dysfunction and the role of shear stress in the initiation of atherosclerosis, there are many other inflammatory signaling processes occurring concomitantly in other cell types such as the vascular smooth muscle cells and the infiltrated immune cells. The identification of new cellular players and pathways, both soluble and mechanical, in the progression of the disease facilitates the development of new therapeutic approaches to minimize inflammation and progression of atherosclerosis.

Original publication





Book title

Atherosclerosis: Risks, Mechanisms, and Therapies

Publication Date



43 - 52