Mice deleted for cell division cycle 73 gene develop parathyroid and uterine tumours: model for the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome.
Walls GV., Stevenson M., Lines KE., Newey PJ., Reed AAC., Bowl MR., Jeyabalan J., Harding B., Bradley KJ., Manek S., Chen J., Wang P., Williams BO., Teh BT., Thakker RV.
The hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour (HPT-JT) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by occurrence of parathyroid tumours, often atypical adenomas and carcinomas, ossifying jaw fibromas, renal tumours and uterine benign and malignant neoplasms. HPT-JT is caused by mutations of the cell division cycle 73 (CDC73) gene, located on chromosome 1q31.2 and encodes a 531 amino acid protein, parafibromin. To facilitate in vivo studies of Cdc73 in tumourigenesis we generated conventional (Cdc73+/-) and conditional parathyroid-specific (Cdc73+/L/PTH-Cre and Cdc73L/L/PTH-Cre) mouse models. Mice were aged to 18-21 months and studied for survival, tumour development and proliferation, and serum biochemistry, and compared to age-matched wild-type (Cdc73+/+ and Cdc73+/+/PTH-Cre) littermates. Survival of Cdc73+/- mice, when compared to Cdc73+/+ mice was reduced (Cdc73+/-=80%; Cdc73+/+=90% at 18 months of age, P<0.05). Cdc73+/-, Cdc73+/L/PTH-Cre and Cdc73L/L/PTH-Cre mice developed parathyroid tumours, which had nuclear pleomorphism, fibrous septation and increased galectin-3 expression, consistent with atypical parathyroid adenomas, from 9 months of age. Parathyroid tumours in Cdc73+/-, Cdc73+/L/PTH-Cre and Cdc73L/L/PTH-Cre mice had significantly increased proliferation, with rates >fourfold higher than that in parathyroid glands of wild-type littermates (P<0.0001). Cdc73+/-, Cdc73+/L/PTH-Cre and Cdc73L/L/PTH-Cre mice had higher mean serum calcium concentrations than wild-type littermates, and Cdc73+/- mice also had increased mean serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. Parathyroid tumour development, and elevations in serum calcium and PTH, were similar in males and females. Cdc73+/- mice did not develop bone or renal tumours but female Cdc73+/- mice, at 18 months of age, had uterine neoplasms comprising squamous metaplasia, adenofibroma and adenomyoma. Uterine neoplasms, myometria and jaw bones of Cdc73+/- mice had increased proliferation rates that were 2-fold higher than in Cdc73+/+ mice (P<0.05). Thus, our studies, which have established mouse models for parathyroid tumours and uterine neoplasms that develop in the HPT-JT syndrome, provide in vivo models for future studies of these tumours.