In-vivo(31)P-MRS of skeletal muscle and liver: A way for non-invasive assessment of their metabolism.
Valkovič L., Chmelík M., Krššák M.
In addition to direct assessment of high energy phosphorus containing metabolite content within tissues, phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) provides options to measure phospholipid metabolites and cellular pH, as well as the kinetics of chemical reactions of energy metabolism in vivo. Even though the great potential of (31)P-MR was recognized over 30 years ago, modern MR systems, as well as new, dedicated hardware and measurement techniques provide further opportunities for research of human biochemistry. This paper presents a methodological overview of the (31)P-MR techniques that can be used for basic, physiological, or clinical research of human skeletal muscle and liver in vivo. Practical issues of (31)P-MRS experiments and examples of potential applications are also provided. As signal localization is essential for liver (31)P-MRS and is important for dynamic muscle examinations as well, typical localization strategies for (31)P-MR are also described.