High-density mapping of left atrial endocardial activation during sinus rhythm and coronary sinus pacing in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
Betts TR., Roberts PR., Morgan JM.
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to record global high-density maps of left atrial endocardial activation during sinus rhythm and coronary sinus pacing. METHOD AND RESULTS: Noncontact mapping of the left atrium was performed in nine patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation undergoing pulmonary vein ablation procedures. High-density isopotential and isochronal activation maps were superimposed on three-dimensional reconstructions of left atrial geometry. Mapping was repeated during pacing from sites within the coronary sinus. Earliest left atrial endocardial activation occurred anterior to the right pulmonary veins in seven patients and on the anterosuperior septum in two patients. A line of conduction block was seen in the posterior wall and inferior septum in all patients. The direction of activation in the left atrial myocardium overlying the coronary sinus was different from the electrogram sequence in the coronary sinus catheter in 6 of 9 patients. During coronary sinus pacing, activation entered the left atrium a mean (SD) of 41 (13) ms after the pacing stimulus at a site 12 (10) mm from the endocardium overlying the pacing electrode. Lines of conduction block were present in the posterior wall and inferior septum. CONCLUSION: In patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, lines of conduction block are present in the left atrium during sinus rhythm and coronary sinus pacing. Electrograms recorded in the coronary sinus infrequently correspond to the direction of activation in the overlying left atrial myocardium.