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This article will consider how physiological monitoring can be used both as an intrinsic part of an experiment, or for removing unwanted physiological signals from the FMRI time series. As functional MRI is used for a wide variety of applications beyond the identification of regions involved in a task, different sources of noise in the time series become important. The use of arterial spin labelling sequences, either in isolation or combined with BOLD imaging, means that temporal noise must be dealt with differently. Moreover, when these are combined with global cerebrovascular stimuli, such as respiratory challenges, the standard analysis tools must be employed with great care so as not to detrimentally distort the data. Acquiring and analysing physiological data is sometimes more art than science, and this article attempts to provide some insight into common techniques as well as advice on identifying and correcting some of the problems that may be encountered.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





81 - 91


ASL, BOLD, Calibrated FMRI, Carbon dioxide, Cardiac, Gas challenge, Gating, Oxygen, Respiratory, Artifacts, Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena, Functional Neuroimaging, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Respiratory Physiological Phenomena