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BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is known to be associated with high cardiovascular risk, but the individual impact of PAD presentations on risk of macrovascular and microvascular events has not been reliably compared in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the impact of major PAD, and its different presentations, on the 10-year risk of death, major macrovascular events, and major clinical microvascular events in these patients. METHODS: Participants in the action in diabetes and vascular disease: PreterAx and DiamicroN modified-release controlled evaluation (ADVANCE) trial and the ADVANCE-ON post-trial study were followed for a median of 5.0 (in-trial), 5.4 (post-trial), and 9.9 (overall) years. Major PAD at baseline was subdivided into lower-extremity chronic ulceration or amputation secondary to vascular disease and history of peripheral revascularization by angioplasty or surgery. RESULTS: Among 11,140 participants, 516 (4.6 %) had major PAD at baseline: 300 (2.7 %) had lower-extremity ulceration or amputation alone, 190 (1.7 %) had peripheral revascularization alone, and 26 (0.2 %) had both presentations. All-cause mortality, major macrovascular events, and major clinical microvascular events occurred in 2265 (20.3 %), 2166 (19.4 %), and 807 (7.2 %) participants, respectively. Compared to those without PAD, patients with major PAD had increased rates of all-cause mortality (HR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.15-1.60, p = 0.0004), and major macrovascular events (1.47 [1.23-1.75], p < 0.0001), after multiple adjustments for region of origin, cardiovascular risk factors and treatments, peripheral neuropathy markers, and randomized treatments. We have also observed a trend toward an association of baseline PAD with risk of major clinical microvascular events [1.31 (0.96-1.78), p = 0.09]. These associations were comparable for patients with a lower-extremity ulceration or amputation and for those with a history of peripheral revascularization. Furthermore, the risk of retinal photocoagulation or blindness, but not renal events, increased in patients with lower-extremity ulceration or amputation [1.53 (1.01-2.30), p = 0.04]. CONCLUSIONS: Lower-extremity ulceration or amputation, and peripheral revascularization both increased the risks of death and cardiovascular events, but only lower-extremity ulceration or amputation increased the risk of severe retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Screening for major PAD and its management remain crucial for cardiovascular prevention in patients with type 2 diabetes ( number, NCT00949286).

Original publication




Journal article


Cardiovasc Diabetol

Publication Date





Cardiovascular diseases, Diabetic retinopathy, Lower-extremity amputation, Lower-extremity ulceration, Major macrovascular events, Mortality, Peripheral arterial disease, Type 2 diabetes, Aged, Amputation, Angioplasty, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Diabetic Angiopathies, Diabetic Retinopathy, Female, Humans, Hypoglycemic Agents, Leg Ulcer, Limb Salvage, Lower Extremity, Male, Middle Aged, Peripheral Arterial Disease, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome, Vascular Surgical Procedures