ICD lead implantation following sharp cannulation of a blocked superior vena cava.
Sadarmin PP., Uberoi R., Tomlinson DR., Betts TR.
Blocked superior vena cava (SVC) presents a well-recognized problem for the implantation of device leads. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) leads pose a greater challenge than the pacing leads by requiring an adequate shock vector for successful defibrillation. We present here a novel technique of opening the blocked SVC to facilitate ICD lead implantation through the upper venous system.