Identification of Intragenic Exon Deletions and Duplication of TCF12 by Whole Genome or Targeted Sequencing as a Cause of TCF12-Related Craniosynostosis.
Goos JA., Fenwick AL., Swagemakers SM., McGowan SJ., Knight SJ., Twigg SR., Hoogeboom AJ., van Dooren MF., Magielsen FJ., Wall SA., Mathijssen IM., Wilkie AO., van der Spek PJ., van den Ouweland AM.
TCF12-related craniosynostosis can be caused by small heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in TCF12. Large intragenic rearrangements, however, have not been described yet. Here, we present the identification of four large rearrangements in TCF12 causing TCF12-related craniosynostosis. Whole-genome sequencing was applied on the DNA of 18 index cases with coronal synostosis and their family members (43 samples in total). The data were analyzed using an autosomal-dominant disease model. Structural variant analysis reported intragenic exon deletions (of sizes 84.9, 8.6, and 5.4 kb) in TCF12 in three different families. The results were confirmed by deletion-specific PCR and dideoxy-sequence analysis. Separately, targeted sequencing of the TCF12 genomic region in a patient with coronal synostosis identified a tandem duplication of 11.3 kb. The pathogenic effect of this duplication was confirmed by cDNA analysis. These findings indicate the importance of screening for larger rearrangements in patients suspected to have TCF12-related craniosynostosis.