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PURPOSE: To present a framework in which time-varying gradients are applied with RF spoiling to reduce unwanted signal, particularly at high flip angles. METHODS: A time-varying gradient spoiler scheme compatible with RF spoiling is defined, in which spoiler gradients cycle through the vertices of a hexagon, which we call hexagonal spoiling. The method is compared with a traditional constant spoiling gradient both in the transition to and in the steady state. Extended phase graph (EPG) simulations, phantom acquisitions, and in vivo images were used to assess the method. RESULTS: Simulations, phantom and in vivo experiments showed that unwanted signal was markedly reduced by employing hexagonal spoiling, both in the transition to and in the steady state. For adipose tissue at 1.5 Tesla, the unwanted signal in the steady state with a 60 ° flip angle was reduced from 22% with constant spoiling to 2% with hexagonal spoiling. CONCLUSIONS: A time-varying gradient spoiler scheme that works with RF spoiling, called "hexagonal spoiling," has been presented and found to offer improved spoiling over the traditional constant spoiling gradient. Magn Reson Med 77:1231-1237, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Original publication




Journal article


Magn Reson Med

Publication Date





1231 - 1237


RF spoiling, fast gradient echo, gradient spoiling, spoiling, Algorithms, Artifacts, Fourier Analysis, Humans, Image Enhancement, Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Phantoms, Imaging, Reproducibility of Results, Sensitivity and Specificity, Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted