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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a weight-reduction procedure resulting in rapid resolution of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The role of pancreatic islet function in this restoration of normoglycemia has not been fully elucidated. Using the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat model, we demonstrate that RYGB restores normal glucose regulation of glucagon and insulin secretion and normalizes islet morphology. Culture of isolated islets with serum from RYGB animals mimicked these effects, implicating a humoral factor. These latter effects were reversed following neutralization of the gut hormone peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) but persisted in the presence of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist. The effects of RYGB on secretion were replicated by chronic exposure of diabetic rat islets to PYY in vitro. These findings indicate that the mechanism underlying T2D remission may be mediated by PYY and suggest that drugs promoting PYY release or action may restore pancreatic islet function in T2D.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.celrep.2016.03.091

Type

Journal article

Journal

Cell Rep

Volume

15

Pages

944 - 950

Keywords

Adult, Animals, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Gastric Bypass, Glucagon, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1, Humans, Insulin, Islets of Langerhans, Male, Peptide YY, Rats, Wistar, Transcription, Genetic