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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently induces the production of several cytokines in THP-1 cells pretreated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). We report that all-trans retinoic acid (tRA) synergizes with LPS to enhance the production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in PMA-treated cells, whereas the production of granulocyte-macrophage CSF, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1-beta), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is minimally affected by tRA. The interaction between LPS and tRA on G-CSF production is not due to IL-1-beta or TNF-alpha present in the culture medium during LPS and tRA treatment because neutralization of n-1-beta and TNF-alpha activity does not inhibit the synergy between LPS and tRA. However, exogenous IL-1-beta, but not TNF-alpha, also synergizes with tRA on G-CSF production, suggesting that LPS and IL-l-beta can independently interact with tRA to stimulate G-CSF production.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Oncol

Publication Date





45 - 50