Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

© 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This article summarizes the most recent version (2008) of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of leukemia and the closely related myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The classification of the lymphomas and other neoplasms that are not primarily leukemic in nature will not be discussed. This was the first classification system of hematological malignancies that used genetic information extensively to aid categorization. The WHO classification is now being used much more widely and can identify leukemias with a good risk prognosis, or that will respond to specific therapies, more accurately than previous classification systems.

Original publication





Book title

Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics: Second Edition

Publication Date



329 - 336