All-trans retinoic acid directly inhibits granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced proliferation of CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitor cells.
Smeland EB., Rusten L., Jacobsen SE., Skrede B., Blomhoff R., Wang MY., Funderud S., Kvalheim G., Blomhoff HK.
In this study we examine the effects of retinoids on purified CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitor cells. All-trans retinoic acid inhibited granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced proliferation of CD34+ cells in short-term liquid cultures in a dose-dependent fashion with maximal inhibition of 72% at a concentration of retinoic acid of 1 mumol/L. Although no significant effects were observed on granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF)--interleukin-3--or stem cell factor (SCF)-induced proliferation, the combinations of G-CSF and each of these cytokines were all inhibited. Moreover, retinol (3 mumol/L) and chylomicron remnant retinyl esters (0.1 mumol/L) in concentrations normally found in human plasma also had inhibitory effects. Single-cell experiments showed that the effects of retinoic acid were directly mediated. Retinoids also significantly inhibited G-CSF-induced colony formation in semisolid medium, with 88% inhibition observed at a concentration of retinoic acid of 1 mumol/L. However, we did not observe any effects of retinoic acid on G-CSF-induced differentiation as assessed by morphology and flowcytometry. Similar to previous findings using total bone marrow mononuclear cells, we observed a stimulation of GM-CSF-induced colony formation after 14 days. We also observed a stimulatory effect of low doses of retinoic acid (30 nmol/L) on blast-cell colony formation on stromal cell layers. Taken together, the data indicate that vitamin A present in human plasma has inhibitory as well as stimulatory effects on myelopoiesis.