Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has potent antiproliferative effects on human hematopoietic progenitor cells. We report here that TGF-beta 1 and -beta 2 also exert bimodal dose-dependent stimulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF) and granulocyte-CSF-induced day 7 granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units. This increase in colony formation was restricted to low doses (0.01 to 1.0 ng/mL) of TGF-beta 1 and was due to increased granulopoiesis, showing that TGF-beta can affect the differentiation as well as the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitors. Furthermore, TGF-beta 3 was found to be a more potent inhibitor of hematopoietic progenitor cells than TGF-beta 1 and -beta 2. In contrast to the bidirectional proliferative effects of TGF-beta 1 and -beta 2, the effects of TGF-beta 3 on human hematopoiesis were only inhibitory, showing for the first time that TGF-beta isoforms differ not only in potencies but also with regard to the nature of the response they elicit.


Journal article



Publication Date





2239 - 2247


Cell Differentiation, Cell Division, Colony-Forming Units Assay, Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, Granulocytes, Hematopoiesis, Hematopoietic Stem Cells, Humans, Interleukin-3, Macrophages, Transforming Growth Factor beta