Diagnostic performance of using one- or two-HbA1c cut-point strategies to detect undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation within a multi-ethnic population.
Mostafa SA., Khunti K., Kilpatrick ES., Webb D., Srinivasan BT., Gray LJ., Davies MJ.
INTRODUCTION: We compared test performance and cost per case for strategies detecting diabetes on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) using either (a) glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or (b) two HbA1c thresholds where the first cut-point 'rules out' and the second 'rules in' diabetes. HbA1c values in between the thresholds require confirmatory glucose testing for diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an analysis of adults aged 40-75 years from the Leicester Ethnic Atherosclerosis and Diabetes Risk (LEADER) cohort (Leicester, UK), from 2002 to 2008, who underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and HbA1c testing. RESULTS: From 8696 individuals (mean age 57.3 years, 73% white Europeans (WE) and 27% South Asians (SA)), HbA1c ≥ 6.5% produced sensitivity of 62.1% for detecting diabetes in WE and 78.9% in SA. Using two selected thresholds, HbA1c ≤ 5.8% (rule-in, 40 mmol/mol) and HbA1c ≥ 6.8% (rule-out, 51 mmol/mol) produced high sensitivity/specificity (> 91.0%) for detecting diabetes, however, 28.8% of the cohort with HbA1c 5.9%-6.7% required a subsequent glucose test. The two cut-point threshold produced a lower cost per case of diabetes detected in WE, compared to HbA1c ≥ 6.5% of £38.53 (1.89 to 86.81) per case, but was more expensive in SA by £84.50 (69.72 to 100.92) per case. Using a risk score to determine HbA1c testing, the same costs per case became £63.33 (23.33 to 113.26) in WE and £69.21 (55.60 to 82.41) in SA. CONCLUSION: Using a two-threshold strategy may have some benefits over a single cut-point; however, 28.8% of individuals required two blood tests.