Outcome of second allogeneic transplants using reduced-intensity conditioning following relapse of haematological malignancy after an initial allogeneic transplant.
Shaw BE., Mufti GJ., Mackinnon S., Cavenagh JD., Pearce RM., Towlson KE., Apperley JF., Chakraverty R., Craddock CF., Kazmi MA., Littlewood TJ., Milligan DW., Pagliuca A., Thomson KJ., Marks DI., Russell NH.
Disease relapse following an allogeneic transplant remains a major cause of treatment failure, often with a poor outcome. Second allogeneic transplant procedures have been associated with high TRM, especially with myeloablative conditioning. We hypothesized that the use of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) would decrease the TRM. We performed a retrospective national multicentre analysis of 71 patients receiving a second allogeneic transplant using RIC after disease relapse following an initial allogeneic transplant. The majority of patients had leukaemia/myelodysplasia (MDS) (N=57), nine had lymphoproliferative disorders, two had myeloma and three had myeloproliferative diseases. A total of 25% of patients had unrelated donors. The median follow-up was 906 days from the second allograft. The predicted overall survival (OS) and TRM at 2 years were 28 and 27%, respectively. TRM was significantly lower in those who relapsed late (>11 months) following the first transplant (2 years: 17 vs 38% in early relapses; P=0.03). Two factors were significantly associated with a better survival: late relapse (P=0.014) and chronic GVHD following the second transplant (P=0.014). These data support our hypothesis that the second RIC allograft results in a lower TRM than using MA. A proportion of patients achieved a sustained remission even when relapsing after a previous MA transplant.