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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), an autosomal dominant disorder, is characterised by the occurrence of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (P-NETs) in association with parathyroid and pituitary tumours. P-NETs, which include gastrinomas, insulinomas, and non-functioning tumours, occur in more than 80% of MEN1 patients and account for 50% of disease-specific deaths. However, there is no consensus about the optimal methods for detecting and treating P-NETs in MEN1 patients, and extrapolations from approaches used in patients with non-familial (sporadic) P-NETs require caution because of differences, such as the younger age of onset, multi-focality of P-NETs, and concomitant presence of other tumours in MEN1 patients. Thus, the early detection of P-NETs by circulating biomarkers and imaging modalities, and their appropriate treatments by surgical approaches and/or radionuclide therapy, chemotherapy, and biotherapy pose challenges and controversies. These challenges and controversies will be reviewed and possible approaches proposed.

Original publication




Journal article


Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol

Publication Date





895 - 905


Biomarkers, Disease Management, Humans, Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1, Neuroendocrine Tumors, Pancreatic Neoplasms, Treatment Outcome