Progression of diet-induced diabetes in C57BL6J mice involves functional dissociation of Ca2(+) channels from secretory vesicles.
Collins SC., Hoppa MB., Walker JN., Amisten S., Abdulkader F., Bengtsson M., Fearnside J., Ramracheya R., Toye AA., Zhang Q., Clark A., Gauguier D., Rorsman P.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the suppression of glucose-induced insulin secretion in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: C57BL6J mice were fed a HFD or a normal diet (ND) for 3 or 15 weeks. Plasma insulin and glucose levels in vivo were assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Insulin secretion in vitro was studied using static incubations and a perfused pancreas preparation. Membrane currents, electrical activity, and exocytosis were examined by patch-clamp technique measurements. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured by microfluorimetry. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) was used for optical imaging of exocytosis and submembrane depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)](i). The functional data were complemented by analyses of histology and gene transcription. RESULTS: After 15 weeks, but not 3 weeks, mice on HFD exhibited hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Pancreatic islet content and beta-cell area increased 2- and 1.5-fold, respectively. These changes correlated with a 20-50% reduction of glucose-induced insulin secretion (normalized to insulin content). The latter effect was not associated with impaired electrical activity or [Ca(2+)](i) signaling. Single-cell capacitance and TIRFM measurements of exocytosis revealed a selective suppression (>70%) of exocytosis elicited by short (50 ms) depolarization, whereas the responses to longer depolarizations were (500 ms) less affected. The loss of rapid exocytosis correlated with dispersion of Ca(2+) entry in HFD beta-cells. No changes in gene transcription of key exocytotic protein were observed. CONCLUSIONS: HFD results in reduced insulin secretion by causing the functional dissociation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) entry from exocytosis. These observations suggest a novel explanation to the well-established link between obesity and diabetes.