Effects of endothelin-1 in the isolated heart in ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.
Neubauer S., Zimmermann S., Hirsch A., Pulzer F., Tian R., Bauer W., Bauer B., Ertl G.
The effects of the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 were examined in the isolated heart during hypoxia, reoxygenation and reperfusion. Isovolumic rat hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at constant pressure. Cumulative dose-response curves were obtained for endothelin-1 boluses of 0.04 to 400 pmol in five groups of hearts. Coronary flow declined with increasing dosages and was almost abolished at 400 pmol in control hearts. In hearts subjected to mild hypoxia (perfusate PO2 approximately 150 mmHg), the constrictor effect of endothelin-1 was attenuated at moderate dose compared to control hearts (4 vs. 16% flow reduction at 40 pmol; P less than 0.05). The constrictor effect was unaltered in hearts subjected to either 60 min of severe hypoxia (PO2 approximately 35 mmHg) followed by reoxygenation or to 10 min of total ischemia followed by reperfusion (stunning). When hearts were reperfused following 30 min of total ischemia (irreversible injury), the constrictor response to endothelin-1 was potentiated compared to control (e.g. 36 vs. 16% flow reduction at 40 pmol; P less than 0.05). We conclude that endothelin-1 is a potent coronary constrictor in hypoxic, reoxygenated and reperfused heart. The constrictor effect is attenuated during hypoxia, most likely due to the presence of counteracting vasodilator metabolites. During reperfusion, the constrictor effect is unchanged in stunned myocardium, but is augmented in irreversibly injured heart, due to either increased endothelin-1 binding sites or loss of counteracting vasodilator mechanisms such as prostaglandins and/or endothelium-derived relaxing factor.