Coffin-Siris syndrome and the BAF complex: genotype-phenotype study in 63 patients.
Santen GWE., Aten E., Vulto-van Silfhout AT., Pottinger C., van Bon BWM., van Minderhout IJHM., Snowdowne R., van der Lans CAC., Boogaard M., Linssen MML., Vijfhuizen L., van der Wielen MJR., Vollebregt MJE., Coffin-Siris consortium None., Breuning MH., Kriek M., van Haeringen A., den Dunnen JT., Hoischen A., Clayton-Smith J., de Vries BBA., Hennekam RCM., van Belzen MJ.
De novo germline variants in several components of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex can cause Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS), Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS), and nonsyndromic intellectual disability. We screened 63 patients with a clinical diagnosis of CSS for these genes (ARID1A, ARID1B, SMARCA2, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, and SMARCE1) and identified pathogenic variants in 45 (71%) patients. We found a high proportion of variants in ARID1B (68%). All four pathogenic variants in ARID1A appeared to be mosaic. By using all variants from the Exome Variant Server as test data, we were able to classify variants in ARID1A, ARID1B, and SMARCB1 reliably as being pathogenic or nonpathogenic. For SMARCA2, SMARCA4, and SMARCE1 several variants in the EVS remained unclassified, underlining the importance of parental testing. We have entered all variant and clinical information in LOVD-powered databases to facilitate further genotype-phenotype correlations, as these will become increasingly important because of the uptake of targeted and untargeted next generation sequencing in diagnostics. The emerging phenotype-genotype correlation is that SMARCB1 patients have the most marked physical phenotype and severe cognitive and growth delay. The variability in phenotype seems most marked in ARID1A and ARID1B patients. Distal limbs anomalies are most marked in ARID1A patients and least in SMARCB1 patients. Numbers are small however, and larger series are needed to confirm this correlation.