Calcium-sensing receptor: Role in health and disease.
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a 1,078 amino acid G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which is predominantly expressed in the parathyroids and kidney. The CaSR allows regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and renal tubular calcium re-absorption in response to alterations in extracellular calcium concentrations. Loss-of-function CaSR mutations have been reported in the hypercalcemic disorders of familial benign (hypocalciuric) hypercalcemia (FBH or FHH), neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT), and adult primary hyperparathyroidism. However, some individuals with loss-of-function CaSR mutations remain normocalcemic. Gain-of-function CaSR mutations have been shown to result in autosomal-dominant hypocalcemia with hypercalciuria (ADHH) and Bartter's syndrome type V. CaSR auto-antibodies have been found in FHH patients who did not have loss-of-function CaSR mutations and in patients with an acquired form (i.e. autoimmune) of hypoparathyroidism. Thus, abnormalities of the CaSR are associated with 4 hypercalcemic and 3 hypocalcemic disorders.