Treatment of complex coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes: 5-year results comparing outcomes of bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention in the SYNTAX trial.
Kappetein AP., Head SJ., Morice MC., Banning AP., Serruys PW., Mohr FW., Dawkins KD., Mack MJ., SYNTAX Investigators None.
OBJECTIVES: This prespecified subgroup analysis examined the effect of diabetes on left main coronary disease (LM) and/or three-vessel disease (3VD) in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the SYNTAX trial. METHODS: Patients (n = 1800) with LM and/or 3VD were randomized to receive either PCI with TAXUS Express paclitaxel-eluting stents or CABG. Five-year outcomes in subgroups with (n = 452) or without (n = 1348) diabetes were examined: major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), the composite safety end-point of all-cause death/stroke/myocardial infarction (MI) and individual MACCE components death, stroke, MI and repeat revascularization. Event rates were estimated with Kaplan-Meier analyses. RESULTS: In diabetic patients, 5-year rates were significantly higher for PCI vs CABG for MACCE (PCI: 46.5% vs CABG: 29.0%; P < 0.001) and repeat revascularization (PCI: 35.3% vs CABG: 14.6%; P < 0.001). There was no difference in the composite of all-cause death/stroke/MI (PCI: 23.9% vs CABG: 19.1%; P = 0.26) or individual components all-cause death (PCI: 19.5% vs CABG: 12.9%; P = 0.065), stroke (PCI: 3.0% vs CABG: 4.7%; P = 0.34) or MI (PCI: 9.0% vs CABG: 5.4%; P = 0.20). In non-diabetic patients, rates with PCI were also higher for MACCE (PCI: 34.1% vs CABG: 26.3%; P = 0.002) and repeat revascularization (PCI: 22.8% vs CABG: 13.4%; P < 0.001), but not for the composite end-point of all-cause death/stroke/MI (PCI: 19.8% vs CABG: 15.9%; P = 0.069). There were no differences in all-cause death (PCI: 12.0% vs CABG: 10.9%; P = 0.48) or stroke (PCI: 2.2% vs CABG: 3.5%; P = 0.15), but rates of MI (PCI: 9.9% vs CABG: 3.4%; P < 0.001) were significantly increased in the PCI arm in non-diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS: In both diabetic and non-diabetic patients, PCI resulted in higher rates of MACCE and repeat revascularization at 5 years. Although PCI is a potential treatment option in patients with less-complex lesions, CABG should be the revascularization option of choice for patients with more-complex anatomic disease, especially with concurrent diabetes.