Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Phenocopies may confound the clinical diagnoses of hereditary disorders. We report phenocopies in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), an autosomal dominant disorder, characterised by the combined occurrence of parathyroid, pituitary and pancreatic tumours. We studied 261 affected individuals from 74 families referred with a clinical diagnosis of MEN1 and sought inconsistencies between the mutational and clinical data. We identified four patients from unrelated families with phenocopies. Patients 1 and 2 from families with MEN1, developed prolactinomas as the sole endocrinopathy but they did not harbour the germline MEN1 mutation present in their affected relatives. Patient 3, had acromegaly and recurrent hypercalcaemia following parathyroidectomy, whilst patient 4 had parathyroid tumours and a microprolactinoma. Patients 3 and 4 and their relatives did not have MEN1 mutations, but instead had familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH) due to a calcium-sensing receptor mutation (p.Arg680Cys), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour (HPT-JT) syndrome due to a hyperparathyroidism type 2 deletional-frameshift mutation (c.1239delA), respectively. Phenocopies may mimic MEN1 either by occurrence of a single sporadic endocrine tumour in a patient with familial MEN1, or occurrence of two endocrine abnormalities associated with different aetiologies. Phenocopies arose in >5% of MEN1 families, and awareness of them is important in the clinical management of MEN1 and other hereditary disorders.

Original publication

DOI

10.1002/humu.21170

Type

Journal article

Journal

Hum Mutat

Publication Date

01/2010

Volume

31

Pages

E1089 - E1101

Keywords

Adult, Female, Humans, Hypercalcemia, Hyperparathyroidism, Male, Middle Aged, Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1, Mutation, Pancreatic Neoplasms, Parathyroid Neoplasms, Phenotype, Proto-Oncogene Proteins, Receptors, Calcium-Sensing, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Tumor Suppressor Proteins