Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The plasma insulin or C-peptide response to a 90-min constant glucose infusion 5 ideal body weight-1.min-1 provides Beta-cell assessment comparable to more intensive methods. In 14 diet-treated Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects and 12 non-diabetic subjects, plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations gave near linear plots against simultaneous glucose values. The 'glucose-insulin and glucose-C-peptide vectors' (G-I and G-C vectors), could be extrapolated to predict insulin and C-peptide levels during a 12 mmol/l hyperglycaemic clamp. Predicted concentrations correlated with clamp concentrations, r = 0.94 and r = 0.98 respectively, p less than 0.001, validating the vectors as empirical glucose dose-response curves. The vector slopes correlated highly with %Beta, a mathematical model-derived measure of Beta-cell function using constant infusion of glucose model assessment, Spearman r = 0.95 and 0.93 for insulin and C-peptide, respectively. G-I vector slopes in 21 diet-treated Type 2 diabetic subjects with fasting glucose (mean + 1 SD) 7.5 +/- 2.3 mmol/l, were lower than in 28 non-diabetic subjects, (geometric mean, 1 SD range, 8.4 pmol/mmol (3.3-21.0) and 25.1 pmol/mmol (14.3-44.1), p less than 0.001, respectively), indicating an impaired Beta-cell response. The G-I vector slopes correlated with obesity in both groups (r = 0.54 p less than 0.02 and 0.72, p less than 0.001 respectively), and, in 15 non-diabetic subjects, correlated inversely with insulin sensitivity as measured by a euglycaemic clamp (r = -0.66, p less than 0.01). Thus, Beta-cell function needs to be interpreted in relation to obesity/insulin resistance and, taking obesity into account, only 4 of 21 diabetic patients had Beta-cell function (G-I vector slope) in the non-diabetic range. The fasting plasma glucose in the diabetic subjects correlated inversely with the obesity-corrected G-I and G-C vector slopes (partial r = -0.57, p less than 0.01 and -0.86, p less than 0.001, respectively). The insulin or C-peptide response to the glucose infusion provides a direct empirical measure of the Beta-cell function, which can be interpreted in relation to obesity or to insulin resistance to assess underlying pancreatic responsiveness.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





488 - 499


Blood Glucose, C-Peptide, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Fasting, Glucose Clamp Technique, Humans, Insulin, Insulin Secretion, Islets of Langerhans, Kinetics, Middle Aged, Reference Values, Regression Analysis