Intravascular survival of red cells coated with a mutated human anti-D antibody engineered to lack destructive activity.
Armour KL., Parry-Jones DR., Beharry N., Ballinger JR., Mushens R., Williams RK., Beatty C., Stanworth S., Lloyd-Evans P., Scott M., Clark MR., Peters AM., Williamson LM.
Alloimmune feto-maternal destruction of blood cells is thought to be mediated by binding of alloantibodies to Fc receptors on effector cells. Blocking the antigen using inert antibodies might prolong cell survival. We have performed a "proof of principle" study in volunteers to measure the intravascular survival of autologous red cells coated with human recombinant IgG antibody containing a novel constant region, G1Deltanab, devoid of in vitro cytotoxic activity. RhD-positive red blood cells (RBCs), labeled with chromium-51 or technetium-99m, were separately coated to equal levels with wild-type IgG1 or G1Deltanab anti-D antibody (Fog-1). After re-injection, there was complete, irreversible clearance of IgG1-coated RBCs by 200 minutes, concomitant with appearance of radiolabel in plasma. Gamma camera imaging revealed accumulation in spleen and, at higher coating levels, in liver. In contrast, clearance of G1Deltanab-coated cells was slower, incomplete, and transient, with whole blood counts falling to 7% to 38% injected dose by about 200 minutes before increasing to 12% to 67% thereafter. There was no appearance of plasma radiolabel and no hepatic accumulation. These findings suggest that G1Deltanab-coated RBCs were not hemolysed but temporarily sequestered in the spleen and that our approach merits investigation in larger studies.