MicroRNAs in adipose tissue: their role in adipogenesis and obesity.
Hilton C., Neville MJ., Karpe F.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression and that have been shown to have important roles in numerous disease processes. There is growing evidence for an important role of miRNAs in regulating the pathways in adipose tissue that control a range of processes including adipogenesis, insulin resistance and inflammation. Several high-throughput studies have identified differentially expressed miRNAs in adipose tissue pathology and during adipogenesis and a number of these have now been characterised functionally in terms of their actions and targets. This review will summarise the current literature on miRNAs in adipose tissue, as well as discussing the methodologies used in this area of research and the potential application of miRNAs as biomarkers and as therapeutic targets.