Assessment of acute coronary syndromes: focus on novel biomarkers.
Tousoulis D., Hatzis G., Papageorgiou N., Androulakis E., Bouras G., Giolis A., Bakogiannis C., Siasos G., Latsios G., Antoniades C., Stefanadis C.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality in Western Societies and several developing countries. Recent evidence suggests that most detrimental clinical manifestations of CAD, such as acute coronary syndromes (ACS), are the outcome of inflammatory processes that lead to plaque formation and rupture and eventually to ischemia and potentially myocardial necrosis. Neither of the traditionally used biomarkers is thought to be the gold standard in detection of myocardial ischemia or necrosis. A biomarker that could detect quite early the ischemic myocardium as well as define the risk of a future event with high sensitivity and specificity is still lacking. Several biomarkers, implicated in the pathogenesis and clinical evolution of atherosclerosis, have emerged as potent biomarkers for early detection of myocardial ischemia. In the current review, we summarize recent evidence of the most promising biomarkers and discuss their potential role in clinical practice in patients suffering from ACSs.