The calcium-sensing receptor: insights into extracellular calcium homeostasis in health and disease.
Pearce SH., Thakker RV.
The cloning of the BoPCaR1 gene has helped to elucidate many aspects of normal extracellular calcium homeostasis, particularly as applied to the regulation of PTH secretion, calcitonin secretion and renal calcium reabsorption. In addition, loss and gain of function mutations have been found to cause the clinical syndromes of FBH, NSHPT and ADHH respectively. The CaR has also been implicated in the mechanisms leading to primary and uraemic hyperparathyroidism, and autoimmune parathyroid destruction. The recent demonstration that the CaR regulates non-selective cation channel function in rat hippocampal neurones suggests that it may also have a role within the central nervous system that is entirely unrelated to calcium homeostasis (Ye et al. 1996). Finally, the prospect of CaR agonists and antagonists, which may allow PTH secretion to be regulated independently of the serum calcium concentration, also holds much promise for the medical treatment of hyperparathyroidism, renal osteodystrophy and osteoporosis.