Pathogenesis of Dent's disease and related syndromes of X-linked nephrolithiasis.
Renal stone disease, which affects 12% of males and 5% of females by the seventh decade, occurs as an inherited disorder in 45% of patients and is most commonly associated with hypercalciuria. The biochemical basis for hereditary nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria is unknown, and this has therefore been investigated by a "positional cloning" approach. As a first step in this approach, the chromosomal locations of two disorders referred to as Dent's disease and X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis (XRN) were determined. These two disorders, which represent unusual forms of the renal Fanconi syndrome, are characterized by a low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis and renal failure. An X-linked inheritance for XRN was established by studies of a North American kindred, and a similar inheritance for Dent's disease was indicated by the observation of a greater disease severity in males and an absence of male-to-male transmission in five British families. X-linked polymorphic genetic markers were used in linkage studies of these families, and the genes causing Dent's disease and XRN were mapped to Xp11. In addition, in one family with Dent's disease, a microdeletion involving the DNA probe M27 beta was identified. This microdeletion was further characterized by using yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) and its size was estimated to be 515 Kb. A search for renal-expressed genes from this region identified a novel gene encoding a chloride channel (CLCN5) with similarities to a family of voltage-gated chloride channels. Molecular genetic studies of CLCN5 demonstrated that mutations, which resulted in a functional loss, were associated with Dent's disease and XRN. In addition, such CLCN5 mutations that would result in a functional loss have also been demonstrated in Japanese children with idiopathic low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, and an Italian kindred with X-linked recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (XLRH) and hypercalciuria. Thus, four hereditary disorders of nephrolithiasis are due to mutations of the novel chloride channel, CLCN5.