The impact of diabetes-related complications on healthcare costs: results from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS Study No. 65).
Clarke P., Gray A., Legood R., Briggs A., Holman R.
AIMS: To develop a model for estimating the immediate and long-term healthcare costs associated with seven diabetes-related complications in patients with Type 2 diabetes participating in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS). METHODS: The costs associated with some major complications were estimated using data on 5102 UKPDS patients (mean age 52.4 years at diagnosis). In-patient and out-patient costs were estimated using multiple regression analysis based on costs calculated from the length of admission multiplied by the average specialty cost and a survey of 3488 UKPDS patients' healthcare usage conducted in 1996-1997. RESULTS: Using the model, the estimate of the cost of first complications were as follows: amputation pound 8459 (95% confidence interval pound 5295, pound 13 200); non-fatal myocardial infarction pound 4070 ( pound 3580, pound 4722); fatal myocardial infarction pound 1152 ( pound 941, pound 1396); fatal stroke pound 3383 ( pound 1935, pound 5431); non-fatal stroke pound 2367 ( pound 1599, pound 3274); ischaemic heart disease pound 1959 ( pound 1467, pound 2541); heart failure pound 2221 ( pound 1690, pound 2896); cataract extraction pound 1553 ( pound 1320, pound 1855); and blindness in one eye pound 872 ( pound 526, pound 1299). The annual average in-patient cost of events in subsequent years ranged from pound 631 ( pound 403, pound 896) for heart failure to pound 105 ( pound 80, pound 142) for cataract extraction. Non-in-patient costs for macrovascular complications were pound 315 ( pound 247, pound 394) and for microvascular complications were pound 273 ( pound 215, pound 343) in the year of the event. In each subsequent year the costs were, respectively, pound 258 ( pound 228, pound 297) and pound 204 ( pound 181, pound 255). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide estimates of the immediate and long-term healthcare costs associated with seven diabetes-related complications.