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Despite substantial therapeutic advances, heart failure remains a syndrome associated with high morbidity and mortality. The management of heart failure remains challenging despite the recent different therapeutic advances. The emergence of cardiac biomarkers as increasingly effective clinical tools suggests the potential of a new approach to the management of patients with heart failure. A variety of circulating biomarkers of diagnostic and prognostic utility in heart failure is currently being studies in preclinical, observational and randomized prospective studies. Of the various candidate biomarkers, the greatest wealth of knowledge and clinical experience lies with the B-type naturetic peptides. However, because individual biomarkers may have limited sensitivity and specificity, a multi-marker approach, using combinations of different biomarkers that reflect different aspects of the pathophysiological milieu, would contribute to better risk stratification and optimization of therapy.

Original publication




Journal article


Curr Med Chem

Publication Date





3828 - 3840


Biomarkers, C-Reactive Protein, Heart Failure, Humans, Inflammation, Natriuretic Peptide, Brain